Explore 100 Famous Scientist Quotes Pages

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column. Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates. The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists.

Environmental Awareness – Naturalist Intelligence

Dating methods Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of a specimen. Relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another sample; absolute dating methods provide a date in years. The latter have generally been available only since

Because most fossils are found in rock strata, the method for dating them is the same–measuring the amount of decay of an isotope. Share to: The method of dating fossils by their position in rock layers is called .

The great flood in the history of geology[ edit ] Animals boarding Noah’s ark Edward Hicks painting Main article: History of geology In pre-Christian times, fossils found on land were thought by Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes , Xanthus and Aristotle , to be evidence that the sea had in past ages covered the land. Their concept of vast time periods in an eternal cosmos was rejected by early Christian writers as incompatible with their belief in Creation by God.

Among the church fathers, Tertullian spoke of fossils demonstrating that mountains had been overrun by water without explicitly saying when. Chrysostom and Augustine believed that fossils were the remains of animals that were killed and buried during the brief duration of the Biblical Genesis Flood , and later Martin Luther viewed fossils as having resulted from the Flood. In Bernard Palissy speculated that fossils had formed in lakes, and natural historians subsequently disputed the alternatives.

Robert Hooke made empirical investigations, and doubted that the numbers of fossil shells or depth of shell beds could have formed in the one year of Noah’s Flood. In Nicolas Steno showed how chemical processes changed organic remains into stone fossils. His fundamental principles of stratigraphy published in established that rock strata formed horizontally and were later broken and tilted, though he assumed these processes would occur within 6, years including a worldwide Flood. This natural philosophy was recast in Biblical terms by the theologian Thomas Burnet , whose Sacred Theory of the Earth published in the s proposed complex explanations based on natural laws, and explicitly rejected the simpler approach of invoking miracles as incompatible with the methodology of natural philosophy the precursor to science.

Burnet maintained that less than 6, years ago the Earth had emerged from chaos as a perfect sphere, with paradise on land over a watery abyss. This crust had dried out and cracked, and its collapse caused the Biblical Deluge, forming mountains as well as underground caverns where the water retreated. He made no mention of fossils, but inspired other diluvial theories that did.

Palaeos: Main Glossary

Etymology[ edit ] The taxonomic term Bivalvia was first used by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in to refer to animals having shells composed of two valves. The name “bivalve” is derived from the Latin bis, meaning “two”, and valvae, meaning “leaves of a door”. Some, such as the cockles , have shells that are nearly globular; cockles can jump by bending and straightening their foot.

acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.

For example, when you ask an evolutionist how they come up with the age of the sedimentary layers in the earth, they will always tell you they date them by the fossils found in those sedimentary layers. But how can that be? How can the rocks date the layers, if the layers date the rocks? The evolutionist agrees with Darwin and says all life on earth evolved from primordial soup, which then somehow formed into many different species like birds, animals, plants, fish etc; and those birds, animals, plants and fish evolved into many different types of species themselves.

For example, they believe a bird later formed different types of lizards, horses and dogs. They also believe that plants created everything from vines to trees to flowers, and fish evolved into dinosaurs, apes and humans. Scientific fact is, we still have many of the old species among us, and we know of many that did in fact become extinct. But not a single bird has been found that used to be a fish.

And not a single bird has been found that is related to a lizard. If life truly evolves like they say it does, why did it all of a sudden stop dead in its tracks years ago?

Social Science History: Time line for the history of society, science and social science

Ecofeminism and ecopsychology are mentioned, for example, as are terms from organic gardening and permaculture. Because the life sciences messily overlap that’s life , terms from botany, biology, geology, chemistry, meteorology, and agriculture are included as well. Although designed for technical correctness and clarity, this glossary follows the practice in the Jung and Freud glossaries at this site of letting in a bit of humor here and there: Some states in the U.

Abrasiveness also seems to be the one quality currently shared by most political appointees and prominent heads of state. Also refers to how objects convert the solar radiation they receive into heat.

A common evolutionary strategy to change the phenotype of a species is to change the developmental progression that leads to that phenotype. This diagram is showing how bird evolution progressed to have the adult phenotypes look like the juvenile phenotype of the ancestral species.

USGS Paleontology glossary Acritarch microscopic organic structure from any of a number of organisms; common during the Proterozoic. Adaptive radiation, evolutionary radiation the rapid expansion and diversification of a group of organisms as they fill unoccupied ecological niches , evolving into new species. Age of Mammals term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Cenozoic era, beginning with the Paleocene Epoch when following the K—T end Cretaceous mass extinction , mammals underwent a huge evolutionary radiation and thus replaced reptiles as the dominant life on Earth.

The Age of Mammals has in turn been replaced by the Anthropocene or Age of Man, Holocene when humans dominate every conceivable environment and most other life forms apart from weedy species are suffering a mass extinction Yes, I know humans are also mammals, so technically speaking this is still the Age of Mammals, but I tend to think of the Age of Mammals as a period of flourishing biodiversity.

MAK Age of Reptiles term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Permian through to Cretaceous periods but obviously originating with Victorian discoveries of “antediluvian monsters” , when reptiles first mammal-like reptiles , then archosaurs and marine reptiles were the dominant life on Earth. Paleontologist Edwin Colbert wrote a popular intelligent layperson book with the same title. The Age of Reptiles was followed by the Age of Mammals.

The fresco sits in the Yale Peabody Museum in New Haven, Connecticut, and was completed in after three years of work.


A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.

Called geochronology by Baron Gerard De Geer, its Swedish inventor, this method was based on counting the thin layers of clay left behind by the melting glaciers when the .

What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy.

There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record. For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life. Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc.

Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals. Of course, this is a very general pattern and does not explain why certain creatures that lived on the bottoms of oceans, like trilobites, make their first appearance in the Cambrian Ma while other creatures that live on ocean bottoms, like crabs and lobsters, don’t appear until the beginning of the Cretaceous Ma.

If the geologic column truly represents a series of closely spaced catastrophic burial events instead of long ages of time, how can this feature be explained? Certainly this seems like a difficult and rather mysterious problem for those, like myself, who might think to question the long age notion of the fossil record. At least a partial explanation might be found in the fairly recently discovered fact that at least some nested hierarchical patterns to the distribution of different populations both living and within the fossil record seem to be strongly related to ecological and population-size factors.


A Twa hunter-gatherer in Uganda climbing a tree to gather honey. Nathaniel Dominy Early Human Ancestors May Have Walked AND Climbed for a Living Africa 31 December The results of recently conducted field studies on modern human groups in the Philippines and Africa are suggesting that humans, among the primates, are not so unique to walking upright as previously thought.

The findings have implications for some of our earliest possible ancestors, including the 3.

The glossary that follows assumes a definition of ecology–the study of interactions between organisms and their environment–much wider than what fits under the field’s habitual statistical inism and ecopsychology are mentioned, for example, as are terms from organic gardening and permaculture.

Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time. The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.

Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth. In fact, evolutionary concepts about life date far back into history and arose in many different cultures. The Greeks developed a concept of evolution over 2, years ago that was basically equivalent to that of Charles Darwin’s, but the early Christians opposed the idea and destroyed all of the works that promoted it or any other naturalistic explanations for earthly phenomena.

Origin Mythology There are literally thousands of different mythological stories about the origin of the world and of life. There are several common themes in origin mythology, but there are many different means by which the universe, earth, life, and man have come into being throughout the various different origin myths. The importance and role of origin mythology has varied widely from culture to culture throughout history as well.

How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?

Why are older fossils generally in deeper rock layers than younger fossils? According to the principle of superposition, it would be the uppermost layers that are the youngest, and therefore would have the most modern fossils. What do you know about a rock layer found on a mountain if you find a seashell fossil in the layer? If you find a seashell fossil in a rock layer on a mountain, than you know that the rock layer was formed at a time when that area was submerged under water.

This is because the seashell lived and died underwater, so it would have been fossilized there as the rock layer formed.

The Content – It’s not just about batteries. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background. We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.

See Article History Dating, in geology , determining a chronology or calendar of events in the history of Earth , using to a large degree the evidence of organic evolution in the sedimentary rocks accumulated through geologic time in marine and continental environments. To date past events, processes, formations, and fossil organisms, geologists employ a variety of techniques. These include some that establish a relative chronology in which occurrences can be placed in the correct sequence relative to one another or to some known succession of events.

Radiometric dating and certain other approaches are used to provide absolute chronologies in terms of years before the present. The two approaches are often complementary, as when a sequence of occurrences in one context can be correlated with an absolute chronlogy elsewhere. Ankyman General considerations Distinctions between relative-age and absolute-age measurements Local relationships on a single outcrop or archaeological site can often be interpreted to deduce the sequence in which the materials were assembled.

Creation vs. Evolution

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago.

It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present. If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking.

One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position. Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute.

Apricots Origin & early diffusion “Apricot was long viewed as kind of plum–and one that came from Armenia. In truth, it is a sonte fruit (or drupe) of the same family as the peach. plum, almond, nectarine, and cherry and apparently originated in China, where it has beeen cultivated for some 5, years.

Questions Environmental Awareness – Naturalist Intelligence Environment is the area in which we live and share. The thin layer of air that surrounds our planet that supports life. Humans are the only kind of life that we know of that exists in our universe. If we did not have our environment we could not exist. This environmental space in which we share with other life forms is a complex system.

Though our environment can be an incredibly beautiful experience, the environment can also kill.


Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Nonradiometric dating In addition to radioactive decay , many other processes have been investigated for their potential usefulness in absolute dating. Unfortunately, they all occur at rates that lack the universal consistency of radioactive decay. Sometimes human observation can be maintained long enough to measure present rates of change, but it is not at all certain on a priori grounds whether such rates are representative of the past.

This is where radioactive methods frequently supply information that may serve to calibrate nonradioactive processes so that they become useful chronometers. Nonradioactive absolute chronometers may conveniently be classified in terms of the broad areas in which changes occur—namely, geologic and biological processes, which will be treated here.

Significant Energy E vents in Earth’s and Life’s History as of Energy Event. Timeframe. Significance. Nuclear fusion begins in the Sun. c. billion years ago (“bya”) Provides the power for all of Earth’s geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with .

Homo neanderthalensis Through examining his skeletal remains, scientists found evidence that at a young age, Shanidar 1 experienced a crushing blow to his head. The blow damaged the left eye possibly blinding him and the brain area controling the right side of the body, leading to a withered right arm and possible paralysis that also crippled his right leg. One of Shanidar 1’s middle foot bones metatarsal on his right foot shows a healed fracture, which probably only enhanced his noticeable limp.

All of Shanidar 1’s injuries show signs of healing, so none of them resulted in his death. In fact, scientists estimate he lived until 35—45 years of age. He would have been considered old to another Neandertal, and he would probably not have been able to survive without the care of his social group. Chip Clark, Smithsonian Institution Source and adapted text:

What Is A Method Of Relative Dating?

Hi! Would you like find a partner for sex? It is easy! Click here, free registration!